About the USE CASE:
In the case study, a laboratory energy management system (EMS) has been established. Its goal is to demonstrate how a system, containing controllable energy generation, energy storage and energy consumption units, all managed by an EMS, can perform as an energy efficient system.
The key element in realisation of such a system is the bidirectional exchange of information between the EMS and all elements connected to it. In order to enable this functionality, standard products have been upgraded. Air conditioners, a refrigerator and a water heater, as representatives of energy consumption, have been equipped with low-cost local controllers. Each controller is able to accept the temperature setting point and the allowed hysteresis band from the EMS and provides the EMS with the actual temperature.
Similarly, the photovoltaic system, as a representative of the energy generation units, provides the EMS with the information about the actual output power and accepts references for the reactive power generation and active power curtailment from the EMS. The EMS controlled also a small battery system, sending commands for charging and discharging and receiving information about the battery voltage and current.
The entire system is able of operation connected to the electricity network as well as stand-alone (off-grid) operation. The transition between both modes of operation is smooth and barely noticeable. In both modes of operation, the EMS controls all energy generation, storage and consumption devices. The entire system can be included in demand response and demand side management and can provide market driven flexibility services on the upcoming energy flexibility market. Moreover, several systems equipped with similar EMSs can establish local micro-grids. One of their goals could be a balance between the local energy production and consumption, which leads to an increase in self-sufficient energy supply and reduces the energy transmission related losses. The case study also shows, that the systems connected to an EMS do not need to be at the same location.
Our case study truly demonstrates a cross-border character of the CapaCon project. Some devices from Energetikum located in Pinkafeld were included in the EMS located in Maribor by properly established communication links. On the other hand, the cloud passing forecasting system, developed at UM FERI, will be implemented on a large photovoltaic system in Austria. With prescribed dynamics, this system smooths out all sudden changes in the output power of a photovoltaic system, caused by the clouds passing in front of the sun above the photovoltaic system.